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Thursday, May 5, 2011

Palestine Liberation Organization

(Palestine Twitter)-Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO),منظمة التحرير الفلسطينية‎; Munaẓẓamat at-Taḥrīr al-Filasṭīniyyah, is a political and paramilitary organization founded at the 1964 Arab League summit (Cairo). It is recognized as the "sole legitimate representative of the Palestinian people," by over 100 states with which it holds diplomatic relations, and has enjoyed observer status at the United Nations since 1974. The PLO was considered by the United States and Israel to be a terrorist organization until the Madrid Conference in 1991. In 1993, PLO recognized Israel's right to exist in peace, accepted UN Security Council resolutions 242 and 338, and rejected "violence and terrorism"; in response, Israel officially recognized the PLO as the representative of the Palestinian people. In 2004, the United States Congress re-declared the PLO to be a terrorist organization.

History
Creation
The Arab League in Cairo Summit 1964 initiated the creation of an organization representing the Palestinian people. The PLO began their militancy campaign from its inception with an attack on Israel's National Water Carrier.
The Palestinian National Council convened in Jerusalem on 29 May 1964. Concluding this meeting the PLO was founded on 2 June 1964. Its Statement of Proclamation of the Organization declared "... the right of the Palestinian Arab people to its sacred homeland Palestine and affirming the inevitability of the battle to liberate the usurped part from it, and its determination to bring out its effective revolutionary entity and the mobilization of the capabilities and potentialities and its material, military and spiritual forces".
Due to the influence of the Egyptian President Nasser, the PLO supported 'Pan-Arabism', as advocated by him - this was the ideology that the Arabs should live in one state. The first executive committee was formed on 9 August, with Ahmad Shuqeiri as its leader.

Founding
Founded by the Arab states at the first Arab summit meeting, the 1964 Arab League summit (Cairo), its stated goal was the "liberation of Palestine" through armed struggle. Called Palestinian Liberation Organization. The original PLO Charter (issued on 28 May 1964) stated that "Palestine with its boundaries that existed at the time of the British mandate is an integral regional unit" and sought to "prohibit... the existence and activity" of Zionism. It also called for a right of return and self-determination for Palestinians. Palestinian statehood was not mentioned, although in 1974 the PLO called for an independent state in the territory of Mandate Palestine. The group used multi-layered guerrilla tactics to attack Israel from their bases in Jordan, Lebanon, and Syria, as well as from within the Gaza Strip and West Bank

Organization
The PLO has a nominal legislative body, the Palestinian National Council (PNC), but most actual political power and decisions are controlled by the PLO Executive Committee, made up of 18 people elected by the PNC. The PLO incorporates a range of generally secular ideologies of different Palestinian movements committed to the struggle for Palestinian independence and liberation, hence the name of the organization. The Palestine Liberation Organization is considered by the Arab League and by the United Nations to be the legitimate representative of the Palestinian people and holds a permanent observer seat in the United Nations General Assembly. It has been widely criticized, however, over the lack of Hamas presence in the Organization, even after Hamas won almost two-thirds of the seats in the 2006 legislative council elections.

Membership
The PLO has no central decision-making or mechanism that enables it to directly control its factions, but they are supposed to follow the PLO charter and Executive Committee decisions. Membership has fluctuated, and some organizations have left the PLO or suspended membership during times of political turbulence, but most often these groups eventually rejoined the organization. Not all PLO activists are members of one of the factions - for example, many PNC delegates are elected as independents.
Present members include:
Fatah - Largest faction, Left-wing Nationalism.
The Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) - Second largest, radically far-left militant and communist
The Democratic Front for the Liberation of Palestine (DFLP) - Third largest, communist
The Palestinian People's Party (PPP) - Ex-communist, Social Democratic, non-militant
The Palestine Liberation Front (PLF, Abu Abbas faction) - Minor left-wing faction
The Arab Liberation Front (ALF) - Minor faction, aligned to the Iraqi Ba'ath Party
As-Sa'iqa - Syrian-controlled Ba'athist faction
The Palestine Democratic Union (Fida) - Minor left-wing faction, non-militant
The Palestinian Popular Struggle Front (PPSF, Samir Ghawsha faction) - minor left-wing faction.
The Palestinian Arab Front (PAF) - minor faction.
Former member groups of the PLO include:
The Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine - General Command (PFLP-GC)

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